List of Common Technical Terms and Abbreviations Used in Electronics Design and Manufacturing


In the world of electronics design and manufacturing, you’ll find that there are countless technical terms and abbreviations thrown around in conversation and emails.


To help you stay in the know, we put together a list of the most common technical terms and abbreviations used in electronics design and manufacturing.


In the first column, you’ll find the abbreviation and what it stands for.
In the second column, there’s a concise definition in case you don’t have much time.
The third column contains valuable links to explore each topic further,

Electronics Terms and Abbreviations Meaning Useful links 
AC Alternating Current. An electric current that periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current which flows only in one direction. Alternating Current.
ANOVA Analysis of Variance A statistical model used to analyze the differences among group means in a sample. Analysis of Variance
AOI Automated Optical Inspection


Automated visual inspection for printed circuit boards where a camera scans the PCB for both catastrophic failure and quality defects. Automated Optical Inspection
AQL Acceptance Quality Level


A measure applied to products and defined in ISO 2859-1 as the “quality level that is the worst tolerable.” Acceptance Quality Level
ATE Automatic Test Equipment


Any apparatus that performs tests on a device using automation to quickly perform measurements and evaluate the test results. Automatic Test Equipment
ATG Automatic Test Generation


Computer generation of a test program based solely on circuit technology, requiring little or no manual programming effort. Automatic Test Generation
AVL Approved Vendor List


A listing of various types of suppliers and providers that a company has agreed meets its standards in terms of quality and price. Approved Vendor List
AML Approved Manufacturer List


A list of manufacturers approved to manufacture the materials specified in the bill of materials for a product. Approved Manufacturer List


BGA Ball Grid Array A type of surface-mount packaging used for integrated circuits.   Ball Grid Array Extended Meaning 


SMT vs. SMD vs. THT: What Technology Works Best for Mass Manufacturing?


BOM Bill of Materials A list of the raw materials, sub-assemblies, intermediate assemblies, sub-components, parts, and the quantities of each needed to manufacture an end product. Bill of Materials Extended Meaning 

BOM – Bill of Materials Cost Optimization in 3 Easy Steps

BOM – Bill of Materials Template  

BS Basic Specification A document that describes the common elements for a set, family, or group of products, materials, or services. Basic Specification
BTO Build-To-Order Systems Assembly Building and testing of a complete product to specific customer order, including required peripherals, software, and documentation. Build-To-Order Systems Assembly Extended Meaning


CAD  Computer-Aided Design Computer technology used to design a product. Computer-Aided Design
CAE Computer-Aided Engineering Refers to the broad usage of computer software to aid in engineering analysis tasks. Computer-Aided Engineering
CAF Conductive Anodic Filament Metallic filament that forms from an electrochemical migration process and causes failures on printed circuit boards. Conductive Anodic Filament
CAM Computer-Aided Manufacturing Refers to the use of software to control machine tools in the manufacturing of workpieces Computer-Aided Manufacturing
CAPDS Capability Detail Specification A document that establishes the specific requirements, noted in a detailed specification, to develop the level of capability that a manufacturer possesses when he has demonstrated that he has met those requirements. Capability Detail Specification
CBGA/CCGA – Ceramic Ball Grid Array/Ceramic Column Grid Array A grid array packaged component that has ceramic as the substrate of the package and may have either solder balls or solder columns for connections. Ceramic Ball Grid Array/Ceramic Column Grid Array
CDS Customer Detail Specification A document that describes the requirements of a desired system from the customer’s or user’s point of view. Customer Detail Specification
CEM Contract Electronics Manufacturing Production of electronic equipment on behalf of an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) customer, in which the design and brand name belongs to the OEM. Contract Electronics Manufacturing
CFT Customer Focus Team A team dedicated to the customer under the leadership of a program manager. Customer Focus Team
CNC Computer Numerical Control Automated control of machining tools and 3D printers using a computer. Computer Numerical Control
COB Chip On Board Manufacturing process where integrated circuits are wired and bonded directly to a printed circuit board. Chip On Board
CP Capability Performance Index The ratio of the measured performance of a process compared to specified limits. Capability Performance Index
CSP Chip Scale Package A chip scale package is a type of integrated circuit package. Chip Scale Package
CTB Capability Test Board A printed board specially designed to act as a capability-qualifying component (CQC) or to be used by the manufacturer to evaluate process variation, process control, or continuous improvement procedures. Capability Test Board
CTE Coefficient of Thermal Expansion This describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
CTO Configure-to-Order Systems Assembly Hybrid of make to stock and make to order operations. Configure-to-Order Systems Assembly
CTP Composite Test Pattern A grouping of individual test patterns into specific arrangements, to reflect control and precision capability of a manufacturer or manufacturing process. Composite Test Pattern
CTS Capability Test Segment A segment or portion of a capability test board (CTB), containing a set or group of individual test patterns (ITP), intended to be used to demonstrate a specific level of printed board complexity or manufacturing capability. Capability Test Segment
CUSUM CHART Control chart used to monitor small shifts in the process mean. It uses the cumulative sum of deviations from a target. Cumulative Sum Control Chart
CAPA Corrective and Preventative Action Improvements in processes to eliminate causes of non-conformities or other undesirable situations. Corrective and Preventative Action


DFM Design for Manufacturing The general engineering practice of designing products in a way that is easy to manufacture Design for Manufacturing Extended Meaning 

How to Design a Product That’s Easy to Manufacture.

9 Design for Manufacturing Rules Crucial to Remain Competitive 

How to DFM Electronics – Design Guidelines

DFX Design For X The value-added service of instituting “best practices” in the design and new product introduction stages to improve X, where X is manufacturability, testability, mechanical assembly, serviceability, etc Design For X Extended Meaning

DFX – Design for Excellence Benefits


DIM Data Information Module A group of records that contain related data describing specific functions or tasks. Data Information Module
DIP Dual In-Line Package It’s an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins Dual In-Line Package
DNC Distributed Numerical Control A network that links computer programs or computer-aided systems to numerically controlled machine tools. Distributed Numerical Control
DOA Date of Arrival Usually refers to the date when components will arrive. Date of Arrival
DP Delivered Panel A production or prototype panel, or portion of either, intended to contain one or more printed boards in a specific arrangement or cluster, to facilitate economic assembly and testing. Delivered Panel
DRAM Dynamic RAM It’s a type of random-access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a memory cell consisting of a tiny capacitor and a transistor, both typically based on metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. Dynamic RAM
DUT Device Under Test It’s a manufactured product undergoing testing, either at first manufacture or later during its life cycle as part of ongoing functional testing and calibration checks. Device Under Test
DS Detailed Specification A document that describes the exact requirements for a specific product, material, or service. Detailed Specification
DVT Design Validation Test  Test to assure a product meets all of its design specifications Design Validation Test
DFMA Design for Manufacture and Assembly This is the combination of two methodologies; Design for Manufacture, and Design for Assembly. Design for Manufacture and Assembly Extended Meaning
DFMEA Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis   Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis


ECO Engineering Change Order Documentation that outlines the proposed change, lists the product or part(s) that would be affected and requests review and approval from the individuals who would be impacted or charged with implementing the change. Engineering Change Order
EDI Electronic Data Interchange Businesses electronically communicating information that was traditionally communicated on paper, such as purchase orders and invoices. Electronic Data Interchange
EMI Electromagnetic Interference A disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit. Electromagnetic Interference
EOL End Of Life Term applied to products or components that are being retired from the market because of technology obsolescence or rapidly declining demand. End Of Life
ERP Enterprise Resource Planning Integrated management of main business processes, often in real-time and mediated by software and technology. Enterprise Resource Planning
ERS Equivalent Series Resistance The equivalent series resistance of a capacitor is the internal resistance that appears in series with the capacitance of the device. Equivalent Series Resistance
ESD Electrostatic Discharge Electrostatic discharge is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown Electrostatic Discharge
ESS Environmental Stress Screening A process that applies specific kinds of environmental stresses to products on an accelerated basis, but within their design parameters and limits. Environmental Stress Screening
EVT Engineering Validation Test A test meant to identify design problems and solving them as early in the design cycle as possible. Engineering Validation Test

EVT vs. DVT vs. PVT Testing: Comparison and Why They Matter 

EMS Electronics Manufacturing Service A term used for companies that design, manufacture, test, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers. Electronics Manufacturing Service Extended Meaning 

Electronics Manufacturing Services – Guide to Selecting an EMS 

ETL – Edison Testing Laboratories Certification An equipment safety certification program operated by the laboratory, Intertek. Edison Testing Laboratories Certification


FA & T Final Assembly and Test The process comprising a subset of all these manufacturing steps: fabricating and assembling the mechanical components and subassemblies of the final product, assembling one or more printed-circuit board (PCB) assemblies and other components into a subassembly, integrating all PCB assemblies and subassemblies into a finished product, testing, and preparing for shipping. Final Assembly and Test
FAE Field Application Engineer Technical support engineers for salesmen and marketing at technology companies. Field Application Engineer
FEA Finite-Element Analysis A computer-based analysis method that subdivides geometric entities into smaller elements and links a series of equations to each element so that they can then be analyzed simultaneously. Finite-Element Analysis
FEM Finite-Element Modeling The use of a model to represent a problem that can be evaluated by finite-element analysis. Finite-Element Modeling
FP Flat Pack A low-profile IC package, which typically has gull-wing type of leads on two or four sides. Flat Pack
FPT Fine-Pitch Technology A surface-mount assembly technology with component terminations on less than 0.625-mm (0.025-inch) centers. Fine-Pitch Technology
FW Firmware Firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device’s specific hardware. Firmware
FMEA Failure Modes and Effects Analysis A method for evaluating a process to identify where and how it might fail and to assess the relative impact of different failures to identify the parts of the process that are most in need of change. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
FCC Federal Communications Commission Certification A certification mark employed on electronic products manufactured or sold in the United States which certifies that the electromagnetic interference from the device is under limits approved by the Federal Communications Commission Federal Communications Commission Certification
FCT Final Circuit Test A test that verifies the resistance, capacitance, and other component values which will determine if the PCB assembly was properly done. Final Circuit Test
Free on Board Shipping term used in retail to indicate who is responsible for paying transportation charges Free on Board


GS Generic Specification A document that describes as many general requirements as possible pertaining to a set, family, or group of products, materials, or service. Generic Specification


HASL Hot Air Solder Leveling A type of finish used on printed circuit boards. The PCB is typically dipped into a bath of molten solder so that all exposed copper surfaces are covered by solder. Hot Air Solder Leveling
HDI High-Density Interconnect Multi-layer PCB constructed with conductive micro via connections. High-Density Interconnect
High-Level Block Diagram A diagram of a system in which the principal parts or functions are represented by blocks connected by lines that show the relationships of the blocks. High-Level Block Diagram


IC Integrated Circuit Set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material that is normally silicon Integrated Circuit
ICT In-Circuit Test Combination of hardware and software that identifies manufacturing induced faults of printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) by isolating and individually testing devices using a bed-of-nails fixture. In-Circuit Test
ID Industrial Design Process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. Industrial Design
ILB Inner-Lead Bond The connection between a conductor on a bonding tape and a bare die Inner-Lead Bond
IMB Intermetallic Bond Thin layer of chemical bonding in metals. Intermetallic Bond
IMC Intermetallic Compound Metallic compounds that form at the interfaces between different metals, such as copper-tin compounds that form at the interface of a solder joint and a copper lead. Intermetallic Compound
IQC Incoming Quality Control/Check The process used to validate the quality of a supplied lot of parts or components Incoming Quality Control/Check
IR Individual Test Pattern Re-melting of solder using infrared heating as the primary source of energy. Infrared Reflow
ITP Individual Test Pattern A single test pattern designed and intended to serve a specific evaluation technique for determining an aspect of a manufacturer or manufacturing process capability. Individual Test Pattern
ITS Individual Test Specimen A single test specimen that contains an individual test pattern (ITP) and is used to determine an aspect of a manufacturer or manufacturing process capability. Individual Test Specimen
ITT Inter-Test Time The duration between two successive driver strobes. Inter-Test Time
IOT Internet Of Things A system of interrelated computing devices that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. Internet of Things


Independent semiconductor engineering trade organization and standardization body. Electronic Devices Engineering Council
JIT Just-In-Time A methodology aimed primarily at reducing times within the production system as well as response times from suppliers and to customers. Just-In-Time


KGA Known Good Assembly A correctly operating printed board assembly that serves as a standard unit by which others can be compared. Known Good Assembly
KGB Known Good Board A correctly operating PCB. It is used in learning or debugging a test program in development and for comparison testers where it serves as the standard unit by which other PCBs are compared. Known Good Board


LCCC Leadless Ceramic Chip Carrier A hermetically sealed ceramic package that has pads around its sides for solder connection in a surface mounting application. Leadless Ceramic Chip Carrier
LMC Least Material Condition A feature of size symbol that describes a dimensional or size condition where the least amount of material (volume/size) exists within its dimensional tolerance. Least Material Condition
LPI Liquid Photo-Imageable Solder Mask An ink that is developed off using photographic imaging techniques to control deposition. Liquid Photo-Imageable Solder Mask
LSI Large-Scale Integration The process of creating an integrated circuit by combining millions of MOS transistors onto a single chip. Large-Scale Integration
LT Lead Time The latency between the initiation and completion of a process. Lead Time
LORA Low Range A low-power wide-area network technology. Low Range


MCM Multichip Module An electronic assembly where multiple integrated circuits, semiconductor dies and/or other discrete components are integrated, usually onto a unifying substrate, so that in use, it can be treated as if it were a larger IC. Multichip Module
MELF Metal Electrode Face Bonding A cylindrical leadless component with a round body and metals terminals on the ends. Metal Electrode Face Bonding
MES Manufacturing Execution System Software systems designed to integrate with enterprise systems to enhance the shop-floor-control functionality that is usually inadequate in ERP systems Manufacturing Execution System
MMC Maximum Material Condition Refers to a feature-of-size that contains the greatest amount of material, yet remains within its tolerance zone Maximum Material Condition
MOQ Minimum Order Quantity The lowest set amount of stock that a supplier is willing to sell Minimum Order Quantity
MP Mass Production The production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines Mass Production
MRP Materials Requirement Planning It’s a production planning, scheduling, and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Materials Requirement Planning
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures The predicted elapsed time between inherent failures of a mechanical or electronic system, during normal system operation. Mean Time Between Failures
MAR Materials at Risk Materials at Risk
MCU Microcontroller Units A small computer on a single metal oxide semiconductor. Microcontroller Units
MPQ Minimum Purchase Quantity The lowest set amount of stock that a supplier is willing to sell. Minimum Purchase Quantity
MVP Minimum Viable Product A version of a product with just enough features to satisfy early customers and provide feedback for future product development. Minimum Viable Product


NC Numerical Control The use of mathematics to define, design or test geometric quantities that are used in a computer-aided technology. Numerical Control
NC Numeric Control Drill Machine A machine used to drill the holes in a printed board at exact locations, which are specified in a data file. Numeric Control Drill Machine
NMR Normal-Mode Rejection The amount of noise superimposed on the input signal of a direct-current (DC) digital voltmeter that the instrument is capable of rejecting. Normal-Mode Rejection
NPI New Product Introduction The process that takes an idea from an initial working prototype to a thoroughly refined and reproducible final product. New Product Introduction Extended Meaning 

How to Do New Product Introduction? 

NRE Non-recurring Engineering  Refers to the one-time cost to research, design, develop and test a new product or product enhancement. Non-recurring Engineering Extended Meaning

List of NRE Costs 

NRE Costs Calculator 


OA Organic Aqueous Water soluble flux. Organic Aqueous
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer An original equipment manufacturer (OEM) traditionally is defined as a company whose goods are used as components in the products of another company, which then sells the finished item to users. Original Equipment Manufacturer
OLB Outer-Lead Bond The connection between a conductor on a bonding tape and the base material. Outer-Lead Bond
OoFF Out of Form actor A prototype which has different dimensions, usually larger, than the final product. Out of Form actor
OQC Outgoing Quality Control/Check Refers to the inspection of the product to ensure that shipped products meet customer’s quality requirements before shipment. Outgoing Quality Control/Check
OSP Organic Solder Preservative A method for coating of printed circuit boards. It uses a water-based organic compound that selectively bonds to copper and protects the copper until soldering. Organic Solder Preservative
ODM Original Design Manufacturer A company that designs and manufactures a product, as specified, that is eventually rebranded by another firm for sale. Original Design Manufacturer
OTS Off The Shelf Already existing components you can grab and use. Off The Shelf


PBGA Plastic Ball Grid Array A ball grid array component whose package substrate is made of plastic Plastic Ball Grid Array
PCA Printed Circuit Assembly A PCB full with electronic components is called a printed circuit assembly Printed Circuit Assembly
PCB Printed Circuit Board The board on which electronic components are placed, often green, for example the motherboard in a PC. Printed Circuit Board
PCBA Printed Circuit Board Assembly Second-level integration of active and passive devices (electrical, electronic, optical and/or mechanical) on a rigid substrate. Printed Circuit Board Assembly
PGA Pin Grid Array A type of integrated circuit packaging. Pin Grid Array
PLCC Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier Four-sided plastic package that has “J” leads around its periphery. Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
PN Part Number Number used to identify an (electronic) component. Part Number
PO Purchase Order The official document issued when a company buys something from another company. Purchase Order
PoC Proof of concept The realization of an electronic product to demonstrate its feasibility. Proof of concept
PoV Point of view Opinion Point of view
PP Production Panel An arrangement of printed boards fabricated from laminate or base materials as a group in a specific cluster to facilitate economic fabrication techniques. Production Panel
PQFP Plastic Quad Flat Pack An FP with leads on four sides generally refers to a plastic quad flat package that is built to JEDEC standards. Plastic Quad Flat Pack
PRD Product Requirements Document  A document containing all the requirements to a certain product. Product Requirements Document
PTH Pin-Through-Hole or Plated-Through-Hole A method of soldering between components and PCB using component’s leads (or pins) inserted in PCB’s through-holes. Pin-Through-Hole or Plated-Through-Hole
PWA Printed Wiring Assembly The generic term for a PWB after all electrical components have been attached. Printed Wiring Assembly
PWB Printed Wiring Board The substrate; generally epoxy glass used to provide component attachment lands and interconnections to form a functioning electronic circuit. Printed Wiring Board
PIC32 Peripheral Interface Controller A family of specialized microcontroller chips produced by Microchip Technology. Peripheral Interface Controller
PVT Production Validation Test  The first official production run, where teams verify that the product can be made at the volumes needed for the target cost. Production Validation Test
PFMEA Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis    Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis 


QFP Quad Flat Pack Surface-mounted circuit package with “gull-wing” leads extending from each of the four sides. Quad Flat Pack
QSOP Quarter-Size Small Outline Package An SO style IC package that has leads on a 25-mil pitch. Quarter-Size Small Outline Package
QFD Quality Function Deployment A method to help transform the voice of the customer into engineering characteristics for a product. Quality Function Deployment


RAM Random Access Memory Computer memory that can be read and changed in any order typically used to store working data and machine code. Random Access Memory
RFQ Request For Quote Business process in which a company or public entity requests a quote from a supplier for the purchase of specific products or services. Request For Quote
RMF Risk Management Factor The maximum tolerable percentage of possible defects within a lot of units, based on approximately 95% confidence level. Risk Management Factor
ROM Read Only Memory Non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Read Only Memory
RTOS Real Time Operating System A real-time operating system is an operating system intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in. Real Time Operating System
RMA Return Merchandise Authorization Part of the process of returning a product to receive a refund, replacement, or repair during the product’s warranty period Return Merchandise Authorization
RFX Request for X Request for X
ROHS Restriction of Hazardous Substances  A directive that restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment. The materials are lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium (CrVI), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), and four different phthalates (DEHP, BBP, BBP, DIBP) Restriction of Hazardous Substances


SA & T Systems Assembly and Test Process comprising a subset of all these manufacturing steps: fabricating and assembling the mechanical components and subassemblies of the final product, assembling one or more printed-circuit board (PCB) assemblies and other components into a subassembly, integrating all PCB assemblies and subassemblies into a finished product, testing, and preparing for shipping. Systems Assembly and Test
SIG Sigma The lowercase Greek letter that is used to designate a standard deviation of a population. Sigma
SIP Single-Inline Package A computer chip package that contains only a single row of connection pins. Single-Inline Package
SIR Surface Insulation Resistance The electrical resistance of an insulating material between a pair of contacts, conductors, or grounding devices that is determined under specified environmental and electrical conditions. Surface Insulation Resistance
SMA Surface Mount Assembly A method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of a PCB. Surface Mount Assembly
SMC Surface Mount Component A leadless device (part) that is capable of being attached to a printed board by surface mounting. Surface Mount Component
SMOBC Solder Mask Over Bare Copper A method of fabricating a printed circuit board that results in final metallization being copper with no protective metal. Solder Mask Over Bare Copper
SMT Surface Mount Technology Attaching electrical components directly to a board substrate rather than through a plated hole. Surface Mount Technology Extended Meaning

SMD vs. SMT vs. THT: What Technology Works Best for Mass Manufacturing?

SMT Assembler

SN Serial Number A unique identifier assigned incrementally or sequentially to an item, to uniquely identify it. Serial Number
SO Small Outline A package resembling a flat pack with leads on only two sides. Small Outline
SOIC Small Outline Integrated Circuit Surface-mounted integrated circuit package which occupies an area about 30–50% less than an equivalent dual in-line package, with a typical thickness being 70% less. Small Outline Integrated Circuit
SOP Standard Operating Procedure Set of step-by-step instructions compiled by an organization to help workers carry out complex routine operations Standard Operating Procedure
SOP Small Outline Package A type of surface mount IC package. They are very low-profile and have tight lead spacing. Small Outline Package
SOT Small Outline Transistor Family of small footprint, discrete surface mount transistor commonly used in consumer electronics. Small Outline Transistor
SoW Statement of work Document routinely employed in the field of project management. Statement of work
SPC Statistical Process Control The use of statistical techniques to analyze a process or its output to determine any variation from a benchmark and to take appropriate action to restore statistical control. Statistical Process Control
SQC Statistical Quality Control Refers to the use of statistical methods in the monitoring and maintaining of the quality of products and services. Statistical Quality Control
SS Sectional Specification A document that describes the specific requirements pertaining to a portion of a set, family, or group of products, materials or, services. Sectional Specification
STM32 STMicroelectronics Family of 32-bit microcontroller integrated circuits by STMicroelectronics STMicroelectronics
SMD Surface Mount Device  A product made using SMT technology. Surface Mount Device
SPC Statistical Process Control Quality control scheme that employs statistical methods to monitor and control a process. Statistical Process Control


TAB Tape Automated Bonding Process that places bare integrated circuits onto a flexible printed circuit board (FPC) by attaching them to fine conductors in a polyamide or polyimide film, thus providing a means to directly connect to external circuits. Tape Automated Bonding
TBD To Be Determined We will decide on this later To Be Determined
TBGA Tape Ball Grid Array A ball grid array component package that uses TAB techniques to make the connections between the IC chip and the solder balls. Tape Ball Grid Array
TCE Thermal Coefficient of Expansion Describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature. Thermal Coefficient of Expansion
TG Glass Transition Temperature The point at which rising temperatures cause resin inside the solid base laminate to start to exhibit soft, plastic-like symptoms. Glass Transition Temperature
THT Through-Hole Technology Refers to the mounting scheme used for electronic components that involve the use of leads on the components that are inserted into holes drilled in printed circuit boards and soldered to pads on the opposite side either by manual assembly or by the use of automated insertion mount machines. Through-Hole Technology
TITOMA Time to Market Time to Market


UL  Underwriters Laboratories Certification UL is a world leader in product safety testing and certification. Underwriters Laboratories Certification


VFP Very Fine Pitch The center-to-center lead distance of surface-mount packages that are between 0.012 inches and 0.020 inches. Very Fine Pitch
VSOIC Very Small Outline IC A SO style IC package that has leads with a pitch of 30 mils or less. Very Small Outline IC


WIP Work in Process Generally describes inventory that is currently being processed in an operation, or inventory that has been processed through one operation and is awaiting another operation. Work in Process